At this point, you should be able to combine what you already know about how to complete a circuit with your newly formed knowledge of breadboards to create a functioning circuit in a breadboard. Remember that it does matter which "side" of the LED connects to the positive side of the battery and which side connects to the negative side of the battery.
Note: It is VERY important that you always use a resistor when you put an LED in the circuit! Not doing so could result in the LED bulb burning out. Thus, your teacher should see both an LED and a resistor in your functioning circuit.
The breadboard is not a battery itself, so you will need to connect a pin (anywhere) in the "+" column of the breadboard with the + side of the battery (using a wire). You will also need to connect a pin (anywhere) in the "-" column of the breadboard with the - side of the battery (using a wire).
When you have gotten your light bulb to light, call over your teacher to show your circuit. Then, on your breadboard printout, draw a schematic of the working circuit you created to hand in to your teacher.